The traditional, simplistic representation of translation, in fact, makes it a process whose function would be to replace one language with the other or, for example, to “put in French” a novel, an instruction manual, a birth certificate, a poem, a troubleshooting guide, a decree, etc., the original of which would be in English.
In fact, the translation of documents cannot be reduced to passing from one language to another: it always requires a complete adaptation of the original document to an audience characterized by different habits, different tastes, different ways of thinking and different behaviours. An audience, therefore, who should receive the translated document as if it had been written by someone from the same culture.
In order to think of translation in an efficient and rational way, it must be said that a document “translated into French”, for example, is a document whose type, linguistic form, format, structure, physical characters, contents, purposes and functions have been francized. Translation “imports” or “exports” content by naturalizing it as completely as possible.